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Abdominal

Pertaining to body cavity below diaphragm which contains stomach, intestines, liver and other organs.

Acidosis

Increased acid in blood and other body tissue

Acuity

Acuteness, clearness, keenness, especially of vision or airways

Acute

New, recent, sudden onset

Adjuvant

A medication that modifies the effect of other agents/medications.

Adjuvant Treatment

Treatment given in addition to primary/initial treatment(surgery) to decrease the risk of cancer coming back.

ADR

Adverse Drug Reaction-harmful / unintended reaction resulting from administration of a medication.

Allergic Reaction

Rash, Itchy eyes, running nose, trouble breathing, nausea, diarrhea.

Alliance

Research base – Group of Cancer Researchers

Anaphylaxis

Rapid in onset, serious, potentially life threatening allergic reaction.

Anemia

Decreased red blood cells / low red blood cell count.

Anorexia

Condition in which a person cannot eat due to lack of appetite.

Assay

Investigative procedure like a lab test.

Benign

Not cancerous, usually without serious consequences, but with some exceptions ie. benign brain tumor may have serious consequences.

Bioavailability

Dose of the administered drug or other substance available to target tissue in the body.

Bolus

A discrete amount of drug / medication given at once to increase the concentration of the drug in blood to an effective level.

Bone Mass

The amount of calcium in a given amount of bone.

CALGB

Cancer and Leukemia Group B (a “specialty” Research Base for cancers – now under Alliance ).

Carcinoma

Is a form of cancer that makes up the majority of cases of malignancy.

Chronic

Continuing for a long time / Longstanding.

Cisplatin

A chemotherapy drug used to kill cancer cells.

Clinical Trial

An experiment done on human participants to answer specific questions about new treatments.

COG

Children’s Oncology Research Group.

Consolidation Phase

More treatment to eliminate non detectable disease and prevent disease from coming back.

Controlled Trial

Study in which the experimental treatment or procedure is compared to a standard /control treatment or procedure.

CRO

Cancer Research for the Ozarks.

CT (CAT) Scan

Computerized (axial) tomography; computerized series of x-rays to detect abnormalities in various internal organs, like chest, abdomen and pelvis.

Cumulative

Total sum (of individual events, experiences, treatments).

Double blind

Clinical trial in which neither investigators nor subjects know what drug the subject is receiving.

ECOG-ACRIN

Eastern Clinical Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Group(Cancer Research Group)

Enteral

Administration through the intestines either naturally by mouth/esophagus or through an artificial opening.

Extravasate

Solution / drug leaking outside of a blood vessel.

FDA

Food and drug administration,  federal agency of U.S department of health & human services responsible for protecting & promoting public health.

Fibrous

Consisting of or resembling fibers and having many fibers, such as in a scar tissue.

GOG

Gynecologic Oncology Group (a “specialty” Research Base group for Gynecological Cancers)

Hematocrit

Percentage of red blood cells in the blood.

Hematoma

Localized Collection of Blood outside Blood Vessel usually in liquid form within the tissue.

Hemolysis

Breakdown of red blood cells and release of their contents into surrounding fluid.

Hypoxia

Low oxygen level in the blood.

Iatrogenic

Illness caused by a medical examination or by treatment.

ICF

Informed Consent Form.

IDE

Investigational device exemption, the license to test an unapproved new medical device to collect safety and effectiveness data.

Idiopathic

Disease/condition for which the cause is unknown.

Immunoglobulin

Y shaped protein / antibodies produced mainly by plasma cells and used by immune system.

Immunosuppressive

Drugs that suppress or prevent activity of the body’s immune system, used in organ/stem cell transplantation and diseases caused by disordered immunity.

IND

Investigational new drug; the license to test an unapproved new drug.

Indwelling

Refers to a tube/catheter left within an organ/body passage for drug administration or for draingae.

Infusion

Administration of a liquid like a saline solution or a medication into the body through a vein.

Interferon

A protein produced naturally by body’s immune system and also by drug companies for purpose of medical treatment.

Intraperitoneal (IP)

Injection of a drug/substance directly into the abdominal cavity through a catheter.

Intrathecal

Administration of a drug/agent into the spinal canal to reach cerebrospinal fluid.

Intravenous (IV)

Administration of a solution/liquid/Medication into the body through a  vein.

Intravesical

Administration of a drug/solution into the bladder.

Invasive Procedure

A procedure in which an instrument is introduced into the body cavity by a cut in the skin or through a natural body opening(e.g.: colonoscopy)

Investigational Method

Treatment method which has not been proven to be beneficial or has not been accepted as standard care.

Laporatomy

Surgical procedure involving cutting through the abdominal wall to gain access to into abdominal cavity to look at the organs.

Lipid

Another word for fat.

Lipid profile

Blood test that measures fat and cholesterol levels in the blood.

Lymphangiography

An x-ray exam of the lymphatic system after injection of dye into lymph vessels.

Lymphocyte

Sub type of white blood cell important in the body’s defense against infection.

Malaise

General feeling of bodily discomfort, uneasiness or indisposition.

Malignancy

Characterization of Cancer or other progressively enlarging and spreading tumor, fatal if not successfully treated.

Metabolize

Process of breaking down substances in the cells of living organisms.

Metastasis

Spread of cancer cells from one part of body to another.

Metronidazole

Drug used to treat infections caused by parasites or other causes of anaerobic infections.

Morbidity

Undesired result or complication; serious disease.

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging, body pictures created using magnetic fields/radio waves.

Myalgia

Pain in muscle or a group of muscles.

NCCTG

North Central Cancer Therapy Group (a research base).

NCI

National Cancer Institute.

NCORP

National Cancer Institute Community  Oncology Research Program.

Necrosis

Death of cells in an organ/tissue.

Neoadjuvant

Administration of a drug/agent before a main treatment.

Neoplasia

New/abnormal growth of tissue, may form a tumor/mass, may be non-cancerous or cancerous.

Neuroblastoma

Type of cancer developing from early form of nerve cells.

Neutropenia

Decrease in common type of the white blood cells important to fight infections.

NIH

National Institute of Health.

NRG

Group of Cancer Researchers(NSABP, RTOG, GOG)

NSABP

National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Program (a “specialty” research base, now a part of NRG).

Occlusion

Closing; obstruction of a hollow organ, eg: blood vessel

OHRP

Office of Human Research Protection.

Oncology

A specialty which deals with prevention and treatment of cancer.

OPRR

Office of Protection from Research Risks of the NIH, oversees IRBs and related matters.

Optimal

Best/most favorable or desirable.

Osteopetrosis

Rare inherited bone disorder characterized by hard bone(stone bone)

Osteoporosis

Bone disorder characterized by loss of bone leading to increased risk of fracture.

Parenteral

Administration by route other than mouth and alimentary canal.

Phase I

Testing a drug in healthy volunteers to determine limits of tolerance.

Phase II

Clinical trial / testing done on patients to assess patient safety and efficay.

Phase III

Usually a big randomized clinical trial to confirm and expand information on safety and usefulness of a new drug.

Phlebitis

Irritation or inflammation of a vein.

Placebo

An inactive substance which may resemble an active agent but has no medicinal value.

Placebo Effect

Symptom or change of condition seen when a placebo is given; not attributable to an active drug agent.

Platelets

A component of blood that helps in clotting of blood (stops bleeding).

Potentiator

An agent that helps another agent work better.

PRN

As and when needed.

Prognosis

Likely course of a disease/probable outcomes.

Prophylaxis

A drug given to prevent disease or infection.

Protocol

A document with a plan for a scientific experiment/medical treatment.

Proximal

Situated closer to the center of the body, away from the end.

QD

Every day; daily.

QID

Four times a day.

Radiation Therapy

Type of cancer treatment using high energy waves to kill cancer ells/ X-ray or cobalt treatment.

Randomization

Assignment of treatment group by chance, similar to tossing a coin (when there is more than one treatment choice).

RBC

Red blood cell.

Recombinant

Resulting from  new combinations of genes(genetic material).

Recur

Appears again /returns.

Refractory

Stubborn/resistant/ not  responding to treatment.

Regeneration

Formation/restoration/regrowth of a structure or of lost tissue.

Regimen

Plan or prescribed course of medical treatment.

Relapse

Return or reappearance of a disease after initial improvement.

Remission

Decrease / disappearance of evidence of cancer or other disease.

Renal

Pertaining to the kidneys.

Resect

Remove or cut out tissue or a part of an organ surgically.

RTOG

Radiation Therapy Oncology Group ( a research group, now a part of NRG).

Somnolence

Sleeping for unusually long periods / strong desire to sleep.

Staging

Is the process of determining of details/the extent of spread of disease/cancer

Standard of Care

Treatment plan which the majority of the medical community would accept as appropriate in similar circumstances.

Stenosis

Abnormal narrowing of a passage in body(duct, tube, or one of the heart valves).

Stomatitis

Mouth sores; inflammation of the mouth / lips, affecting mucous membrane(most often caused by cancer treatment).

Stratify

Partitioning of participants /rearrange in groups for analysis of results by a factor (ie. stratify by age, sex, etc).

Subclavian

A blood vessel under the collarbone/clavicle.

Subcutaneous

Located or placed just beneath/under the skin.

Supportive care

Treatment given to prevent/control/ relieve complications and side effects caused by serious illness like cancer / treatment related, but not intended to improve or cure underlying disease.

SWOG

Southwest Oncology Group (a comprehensive cancer research base).

T-lymphocytes

Sub type of white blood cell involved in immune reactions.

Teratogenic

Drug / agent capable of causing malformations in embryo/unborn fetuses by interfering with their normal development.

TID

Three times a day.

Titration

General alteration of drug dose to determine desired effect or most beneficial strength of drug.

Toxicity

Side effects or undesirable effects of a drug / agent.

Uptake

Absorption and incorporation of a substance by living tissue;  taking in of a substance by living tissue (e.g.: uptake of glucose in a PET scan)

Valvuloplasty

Surgical reconstruction/plastic repair of a deformed valve, especially of the heart.

Varices

Dilated/enlarged sub mucosal veins, usually in lining of tube between mouth and stomach.

Venipuncture

Entering a vein with a needle, generally through the skin to inject a drug/draw blood/fluids.

WBC

White blood cell.