Pertaining to body cavity below diaphragm which contains stomach, intestines, liver and other organs.
Increased acid in blood and other body tissue
Acuteness, clearness, keenness, especially of vision or airways
New, recent, sudden onset
Swollen lymph nodes (glands).
A medication that modifies the effect of other agents/medications.
Treatment given in addition to primary/initial treatment(surgery) to decrease the risk of cancer coming back.
Adverse Drug Reaction-harmful / unintended reaction resulting from administration of a medication.
Adverse Event (AE)
Unfavorable and Unintended side effect.
Rash, Itchy eyes, running nose, trouble breathing, nausea, diarrhea.
Research base – Group of Cancer Researchers
Rapid in onset, serious, potentially life threatening allergic reaction.
Decreased red blood cells / low red blood cell count.
Condition in which a person cannot eat due to lack of appetite.
Drug that kills bacteria and other germs.
Investigative procedure like a lab test.
Not cancerous, usually without serious consequences, but with some exceptions ie. benign brain tumor may have serious consequences.
Carried by, to make stick together, transported.
Dose of the administered drug or other substance available to target tissue in the body.
Series of blood tests.
A discrete amount of drug / medication given at once to increase the concentration of the drug in blood to an effective level.
The amount of calcium in a given amount of bone.
Cancer and Leukemia Group B (a “specialty” Research Base for cancers – now under Alliance ).
Capable of causing cancer.
Is a form of cancer that makes up the majority of cases of malignancy.
Type of treatment for cancer.
Continuing for a long time / Longstanding.
A chemotherapy drug used to kill cancer cells.
An experiment done on human participants to answer specific questions about new treatments.
Major/practical importance of treatment effect.
Children’s Oncology Research Group.
Complete response (CR)
Total disappearance of all disease.
More treatment to eliminate non detectable disease and prevent disease from coming back.
Study in which the experimental treatment or procedure is compared to a standard /control treatment or procedure.
Association of multiple institutions to perform clinical trials.
Cancer Research for the Ozarks.
CT (CAT) Scan
Computerized (axial) tomography; computerized series of x-rays to detect abnormalities in various internal organs, like chest, abdomen and pelvis.
Total sum (of individual events, experiences, treatments).
Clinical trial in which neither investigators nor subjects know what drug the subject is receiving.
Eastern Clinical Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Group(Cancer Research Group)
Imbalance of salts or chemicals in the blood.
Elevation of Liver function Tests
Evidence of liver Injury/ damage.
Administration through the intestines either naturally by mouth/esophagus or through an artificial opening.
Solution / drug leaking outside of a blood vessel.
Food and drug administration, federal agency of U.S department of health & human services responsible for protecting & promoting public health.
Consisting of or resembling fibers and having many fibers, such as in a scar tissue.
Pertaining to pregnancy.
Gynecologic Oncology Group (a “specialty” Research Base group for Gynecological Cancers)
Percentage of red blood cells in the blood.
Localized Collection of Blood outside Blood Vessel usually in liquid form within the tissue.
Breakdown of red blood cells and release of their contents into surrounding fluid.
Tumor of the liver.
Increased Levels of Calcium in Blood.
Increased levels of potassium in blood.
Increased levels of sodium in blood.
High blood pressure.
Decreased levels of potassium in blood.
Decreased levels of sodium in blood.
Low blood pressure.
Low oxygen level in the blood.
Illness caused by a medical examination or by treatment.
Informed Consent Form.
Investigational device exemption, the license to test an unapproved new medical device to collect safety and effectiveness data.
Disease/condition for which the cause is unknown.
Y shaped protein / antibodies produced mainly by plasma cells and used by immune system.
Drugs that suppress or prevent activity of the body’s immune system, used in organ/stem cell transplantation and diseases caused by disordered immunity.
Investigational new drug; the license to test an unapproved new drug.
Beginning phase or first stage of a treatment plan.
Refers to a tube/catheter left within an organ/body passage for drug administration or for draingae.
Administration of a liquid like a saline solution or a medication into the body through a vein.
A protein produced naturally by body’s immune system and also by drug companies for purpose of medical treatment.
Injection of a substance/drug directly into the muscle.
Injection of a drug/substance directly into the abdominal cavity through a catheter.
Administration of a drug/agent into the spinal canal to reach cerebrospinal fluid.
Administration of a solution/liquid/Medication into the body through a vein.
Administration of a drug/solution into the bladder.
A procedure in which an instrument is introduced into the body cavity by a cut in the skin or through a natural body opening(e.g.: colonoscopy)
Treatment method which has not been proven to be beneficial or has not been accepted as standard care.
Investigational New Drug (IND)
A new drug which has not yet been approved by the FDA.
Surgical procedure involving cutting through the abdominal wall to gain access to into abdominal cavity to look at the organs.
low white blood cell count.
Another word for fat.
Blood test that measures fat and cholesterol levels in the blood.
An x-ray exam of the lymphatic system after injection of dye into lymph vessels.
Sub type of white blood cell important in the body’s defense against infection.
General feeling of bodily discomfort, uneasiness or indisposition.
Characterization of Cancer or other progressively enlarging and spreading tumor, fatal if not successfully treated.
Common pediatric primary malignant tumor of brain.
Process of breaking down substances in the cells of living organisms.
Spread of cancer cells from one part of body to another.
Drug used to treat infections caused by parasites or other causes of anaerobic infections.
Undesired result or complication; serious disease.
Death or death rate.
Magnetic resonance imaging, body pictures created using magnetic fields/radio waves.
Mucosa, Mucous Membrane
Moist lining of digestive, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts.
Pain in muscle or a group of muscles.
North Central Cancer Therapy Group (a research base).
National Cancer Institute.
National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program.
Death of cells in an organ/tissue.
Administration of a drug/agent before a main treatment.
New/abnormal growth of tissue, may form a tumor/mass, may be non-cancerous or cancerous.
Type of cancer developing from early form of nerve cells.
Decrease in common type of the white blood cells important to fight infections.
National Institute of Health.
Group of Cancer Researchers(NSABP, RTOG, GOG)
National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Program (a “specialty” research base, now a part of NRG).
Closing; obstruction of a hollow organ, eg: blood vessel
Office of Human Research Protection.
A specialty which deals with prevention and treatment of cancer.
Office of Protection from Research Risks of the NIH, oversees IRBs and related matters.
Best/most favorable or desirable.
Given by mouth.
Rare inherited bone disorder characterized by hard bone(stone bone)
Bone disorder characterized by loss of bone leading to increased risk of fracture.
Administration by route other than mouth and alimentary canal.
Origination and development of disease.
Testing a drug in healthy volunteers to determine limits of tolerance.
Clinical trial / testing done on patients to assess patient safety and efficay.
Usually a big randomized clinical trial to confirm and expand information on safety and usefulness of a new drug.
Irritation or inflammation of a vein.
An inactive substance which may resemble an active agent but has no medicinal value.
Symptom or change of condition seen when a placebo is given; not attributable to an active drug agent.
A component of blood that helps in clotting of blood (stops bleeding).
An agent that helps another agent work better.
As and when needed.
Likely course of a disease/probable outcomes.
A drug given to prevent disease or infection.
A study following patients forward in time.
A document with a plan for a scientific experiment/medical treatment.
Situated closer to the center of the body, away from the end.
Pertaining to the lungs.
Every day; daily.
Four times a day.
Type of cancer treatment using high energy waves to kill cancer ells/ X-ray or cobalt treatment.
Assignment of treatment group by chance, similar to tossing a coin (when there is more than one treatment choice).
Red blood cell.
Resulting from new combinations of genes(genetic material).
Appears again /returns.
Stubborn/resistant/ not responding to treatment.
Formation/restoration/regrowth of a structure or of lost tissue.
Plan or prescribed course of medical treatment.
Return or reappearance of a disease after initial improvement.
Decrease / disappearance of evidence of cancer or other disease.
Pertaining to the kidneys.
Remove or cut out tissue or a part of an organ surgically.
Historic study /study looking back over past experience.
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group ( a research group, now a part of NRG).
A type of cancer.
A type of testes cancer.
Following in a particular / logical order.
Sleeping for unusually long periods / strong desire to sleep.
Is the process of determining of details/the extent of spread of disease/cancer
Standard of Care
Treatment plan which the majority of the medical community would accept as appropriate in similar circumstances.
Abnormal narrowing of a passage in body(duct, tube, or one of the heart valves).
Mouth sores; inflammation of the mouth / lips, affecting mucous membrane(most often caused by cancer treatment).
Partitioning of participants /rearrange in groups for analysis of results by a factor (ie. stratify by age, sex, etc).
A blood vessel under the collarbone/clavicle.
Located or placed just beneath/under the skin.
Treatment given to prevent/control/ relieve complications and side effects caused by serious illness like cancer / treatment related, but not intended to improve or cure underlying disease.
Southwest Oncology Group (a comprehensive cancer research base).
Signs and symptoms of a disease.
Treatment aimed at reducing signs and symptoms of a disease and not the cause.
Sub type of white blood cell involved in immune reactions.
Drug / agent capable of causing malformations in embryo/unborn fetuses by interfering with their normal development.
Blood clotting within blood vessels.
Three times a day.
General alteration of drug dose to determine desired effect or most beneficial strength of drug.
Side effects or undesirable effects of a drug / agent.
Absorption and incorporation of a substance by living tissue; taking in of a substance by living tissue (e.g.: uptake of glucose in a PET scan)
Surgical reconstruction/plastic repair of a deformed valve, especially of the heart.
Dilated/enlarged sub mucosal veins, usually in lining of tube between mouth and stomach.
Entering a vein with a needle, generally through the skin to inject a drug/draw blood/fluids.
White blood cell.